The Washington Post has a fairly interesting article on gender bias in the sciences. It profiles Ben Barres, formerly Barbara Barres, a neurobiologist at Stanford University's Medical Center. Nine years ago, Barres underwent a sex change to become male. Since then, he's enjoyed the privileges of being a male scientist that were not conferred to him when he was female. He recently published an opinion piece in the journal Nature, in which he argues from his personal experience, that women are not treated equal to men in the sciences.
"By far the main difference I have noticed is that people who don't know I am transgendered treat me with much more respect. I can even complete a whole sentence without being interrupted by a man."